JPRS 74320 5 October 1979

East Europe Report


No. 1940



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$0272 -10!


1. REPONT NO. 2. | 3. Recipient's Accession No REPORT —_—, | JPRS 74320 | | | 4. Tate ond Subtitie _ *S Report Dste EAST EUROPE REPORT: ECONOMIC AND INDUSTRIAL AFFAIRS, . § October 1979 No. 1940 « 7. Author(s) B Pertormung Organization Rept No ~~ Orgsnizetion Neme end Address : 10. Project/Tesk/Work Unit No Joint Publications Research Service 1900 North Glebe Road At. ContrectiC) or Grant(G) No Aclington, Virginia 22201 (cy (G) 12. Sponsonng Organization Name end Addréxs 13. Type of Report & Period Coveres As above 14

15. Supplemertery ‘totes

16. Abstract (Limut 200 words)

This serial report contains information on economic theory, organization, planning and management; major agreements on and development of trade within CEMA and outside the Bloc; articles on all aspects of the materials, services, machine, electronics, and precision equipment industries; and concepts and attainments in agriculture, forestry, and the food industry.

17. Document Anelysis #@. Oescriptors

_x International Affairs Economics _x Albania Technological _x Bulgaria Agriculture

_x Czechoslovakia

_x German Democratic Republic ___Hungary

_x Poland

___ Romania

_x Yugoslavia

b identifiers /Open Ended Terms

¢ COSATI FieiayGroup «= SC, 131

18. Aveileniiity Stetement oO . ~ Tae. Security Claes (This Report) | 7 a. No. of Peges on Unlimited Availability UNCLASSIFIED 200 Sold by NTIS | 20. Security Cless (This Page) ; 22. Price Springfield, Virginia 22161 UNCLASSIFIED

(See ANSI-739 18)

OPTIONAL FORM 272 (4-77 (Formerty NTIS-15) Depertment of Commerce

JPRS 74320

5 October 1979




Results of CEMA Session on Standardization Reported (K.-H. Paepke; STANDARDISIERUNG UND QUALITAET,

Aug 719) ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccceseccsesceecccoees

Nuclear Power Seen Vital to CEMA Energy Program (DIW-WOCHENBERICHT, 30 Aug POPTTT TTT TT TT TTT Ter eT


Book on Industrial Achievements, Prospects Reviewed (PROBLEME EKONOMIKE, Apr-Jun ) POYTTTILITTLTLTITTTTTrrree


Minister Dwells on Development of Metallurgy (Stamen Stamenov; IKONOMICHESKI ZHIVOT, 25 Jul 79).......

Consequences of Erosion Caused by Wind (Tsvetko Tsvetkov; IKONOMICHESKI ZHIVOT, 25 Jul 79)......


Nuclear Engineering Effort Seen as Beneficial for CSSR (Jan Stejskal; TRIBUNA, 15 Aug » ) PYYTTTTILTITITTTTrrrrrree.

New System of Plan Fulfiliment Control Announced (Vaclav Cap; HOSPODARSKE NOVINY, 24 Aug 79). .ccecceceeees

Meeting Maps Fall Field Work (RUDE PRAVO, 14 Sep hb )PYYTTTULTITITTTTrrrresfresrrrririrrsT ee





32 39


-a- {III - EE - 64]

CONTENTS (Continued)


Downward Turn in Inner-German Trade Reported (Hans-Juergen Mahnke; DIE WELT, 13 Aug 79)....seseee-

Inner-German Trade Seen Worthwhile Despite Stagnation (WIRTSCHAFTSWOCHE, 27 Aug Peseecesoceseeeseooeooese

Unrealistic Planning in Combine Maragement Criticized (Various sources, various dateS)....cccccccccccececes

West German Commentary Steps for Improvement, by Gertraude Hummel


Briefs Belchatow 360-MW Power Units


Final Account of the Federal Budget for 1978 (SLUZBENI LIST SFRJ, 27 Jul TP cocceceoooceeeoeeeees

Daily Press Circulation (NASA STAMPA, Jul-Aug Wo ecccccccccccccesceceeceeoes

Belgrade-Bar Rail Line's Operating Problems, Losses (BORBA, 29 Aug p ) POYTTTTITITITTTTTrrrrrrryrrrrsfrirery:

Briefs Returning Workers Kosovo Foreign Trade








198 198



East Berlin STASDARDISIZRUNG UND QUALITAET in German No 6, Aug 79, signed to press 12 .tul 79 pp 261-262

[Report by Dr i.-iil. Paepke, engineer, Office for Standardization, Measuremont end Quality Control, on the 45th Session of the Standing Comission for Stan- dardization of CEMA in East Berlin on 3 Jul 79]

one The summer sussion of the CENA Standing Comission for Standardization SxS) was held in Berlin from 30 Jume to 3 July 1979. Attending were dcelega- tions from all CZiA membor countries, the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia, the CZiA Institute for Standardization and the Council Secretariat. Also present wore ropresentatives from the “Interelectro" international cco- nomic organization.

In his opening address on the occasion of the 30th annivorsary of CDiA Profes- sor Lilic, chairman of the SiS, praised the successes achieved by CitiA in the field of standardization, quality control and measurcment. He claimed that the SiS has provided a considerable contribution to growing cooperation and specialization as well as to the reciprocal exchange of goods between the CaiA member countrics.

The discussion focused on the drafting of measures to imploment the resolu- tions adopted by the 32d and 33rd council meetings for the further perfection and advance of joint standardization efforts which are important for the tasks of the Complex Program of Socialist Zconomic Intogration, mainly the measures of long-rance target programs for cooperation (1ZPZ's). Involved here was the necessity of arriving at conclusions from carlicr results achiev.d in the (irafting, introduction and use of CZi\ standards with a view to cuarantccing their widespread adoption and use in contractual relations betwecn the inte- rested Cii.i countrics. The comlex topics for the drafting of C2ZiA standards by the Cli. organs in the 1981-1985 Five-Year Plan period for aiding coopera- tion and specialization as woll as the oxchange of goods were also coorcina- ted, and the 1960 plan of the CZiA organs regarding the drafting of Clu stancards was confiraed. These steps are designed to safcguard the quality of important products in the CZ.A countries and ensure improved interciangcoa- bility and coupling capacity. The actual SiS decisions are those:

-- Concerning the aumual plans for the Cama

plex tonics by the CEA orsans for the oo eee 1981-1985, the cain is on the LZPZ's moroved by the 32d and 33rd council meetings as well as specialization and coopcration agreements. This has already been done with regard to handling the 1950 plan. The proposal of the comlex topics 1981- 1985 currently includes more than 80 percent. The council organs (the dele- gations of the various countries) must study the proposals so that there may be general asreca2nt on a 1961-1985 plan draft which ucets the roquircnents of mltilateral integration.



The planned drai'ting and quicker adoption of CB‘A standards (no later than 18 ponths after confirmation or at the time the respective agreements tae effect) are prerequisites for the realization of the acreed projects. It is therefore nocessary for the authors mumctually to complete the draft stan dards, for national coordination to be carried out in accordance with the

GOR standardization decree, for draft standards wherever possible to be final- ly agreed at specialist conferences, and for wumresolved questions not to be postponed to the next commission conference. The preliminary confimation of drafts must be forthcoming in good time, so that the respective SiS ses- sion should be able to confirm the drafts to be submitted as plamed without first having to enter into multilevel discussions. Altogether vital is the subject matter of the CZ.A standard. We are here concerned with arriving at a standard of paramcters meeting advanced international rcquirements, the planned improvement of product quality in the CiiA countries, the dctcrmina- tion of requirements on interchangeability, reliability and durability in standards (including replacement parts) and national controls and guarantces for the adoption of such indices, Correspondingly incroesed is the responsi- bility of combines for thoir procucts and product development. Also growing is their responsibility for intcrnational standardization and the influence of inspection committees on the quality of the craft standards.

-- The SiS dealt with the suggestions of member coumtry dcclegations for the “plan of the Clo1A countries cooperation in the fiold of standarlization 1961l- 1985." Currently some 500 commrchensive topics are to hand for a.1 branches of the cconomy, wirich arise fran the LZPZ‘'s, cooperation and specialization agreoments as well as steps taicn to perfect the work of standardization. This applies to both the standardization-wise and metrolosical assurance of the projects mentioned carlier. The sugsestions are suimitted to the council organs for cooperation so that, from 1950 on, the drafting of appropriate Study programs may be planned and the confirmation of the 1981 comple: topics ensurcc,

-- The SiS confirmed the "1900 plan of the CrlA organs for the preparation of Ci.A standards,” which includes some 1,900 topics and the volume of which corresponds tt) past years. As already c:plaincd it is wainly concerned with tasks aimed ct implomenting the LZPZ's and other agreciuents on production specializatica and cooperation. It tims helps the realization of the 32d and 33rd council sxeting decisions. It is plamnec to confirm about 900 Clu standards in 1980, As the GOR is the author of vory many standards (second

only to the USSR), the obligations to improve the efficicncy and perfect the work of CE1A impose on us the task primarily to craft nroduct standards at an aGvenced international level, which will help determine quality on the world marizet and stimulate the ccomomic develomment of the Cl mcobe> com- tries. In all this we cust begin by taking into account the requirements of the GOR economy. It is particularly important to ceet the necds of uaterial and energy manasoment.

The tasi:s of the 1980 plan must be included in the plans of combines ad cn- terprises anc their implecentation in the various stages of wor: supervised.

-- Following on the 89th E:0 Conference the SxS is also concermecd with the greater application of CcuA standards to the contractual relations between the countries. To implement the “convention on the application or Cou standards” all nations have adoptec some legislation to ensure introcuction and application. iiowever, the result does not yet correspond to the pote: tial or the requiroments, not even in the GOR. It will be necessary to dis- continue long-standing customs and include paramcters as a condition of bi- lateral or multilateral treaties rather than refer to standards orientin; to similar or sore demanding requireoents. That, after all, is the purpose of CEA standards. ilelped by the various ministrics the foreign trade enter- prises must procecd to alterations which will involve < noticcable change in the application of ClA standards. The legal basis has been provided by the “Decree on the Ci:A Standard.”

The SiS confirmed 317 CA standards for machine constructior, the chonical industry, metallurcy, clectrical engincering/clectronics and industrial safe- ty technology; in the event 1,700 CliA standards wore thereby confirmed. This shows that the demand for the best possible quality applies not only to various characteristics but to the normative document as a whole.

In the course of the 45th SiS Session the Ci‘ scientific production associa- tion “Interctalonpriber”" put on a show of control devices (prototypes and normal control covices), which perfectly illustrated the success of multi- laterally coordinated planned wor::.

11696 CSO: 2300



[Report by West German Institute for cconomic Research: “ixpansion oi Nuclear Energy to insure Cic‘A Self-Suificicncy in Enerzy";

[Text] With respect to their energy policies the Zast Zuropean countries united in the Council for Economic Mutual Aid (Ci‘A) have always assigned top priority to “security of supplies.” This is reflectec in foreign trade data as well as in the structure of primary energy use.

Demand for cnersy raw materials is mainly met from internal Bloc resources. The Soviet Union and Poland have export surpluses, the other CDiA cowntrics are compelled to meet an increasing proportion of their energy needs vy it~ ports, mainly from the Soviet Union. Imports from third countries--only about 3 percent net of dasestic requirements--are of less significance.

The structure of onergy use also documents the effort for self-sufficiency: Nearly 60 porcent of the primary energy produced in the smaller CDi. coun-

trios (CEA excluding the USSR) is generated by brown and hard coal usually available at hone.

If the C2iA countries intend to maintain their Bloc self-sufficioncy--and © this scems indicated by strategic as woll as econaazic considerations--tixy are forced into greater cnergy savings and the devolopcent of new onerry sources. Other than the USSR only Poland is in a relatively satisfactory situation, thaniss to its hard coal deposits. The othor East Zuropean coun tries were able in this decade to raise their dowestic outout by only 1.5 vor cent per @imm, while douestic consumption rose by nearly 4 percent amwmally. The ¢. pansion of energy imports from the Sovict Union is encountering growing resistance. Yor one USSR encrzy exports arc that country's most important source of revenues in trade with the West; in 1978 they yielded 60 percent of foreicn currency carnings. At the sae time any further rise in Soviet energy procuction »resonts increasing difficulties, because it must come in those rogions of Siboria, which are far renmovod fram the consumers and sparsely populated. Tho Sovict Union has already amounced that its fuel

and energy deliveries to “he partner nations will rose only half as the coming 1981-1985 Five-Year Plan period than they did up to now

1971-1975 560 million tons [ 1976-1980 ; 800 million tons Six (+ 43 vercent) 1981-1985 960 million tons (

Against the background of the impending supply bottleneck, energy savings as- suze increasing importance. In view of the high rate of enerry consumtion in all the CZiA countries, the possibility for savings ceriainly exists.

Table 1--Primary Energy Consumption in Tons SKE (per resident)









For comparison's sake: Federal Republic of Geruany


oO FPPreuann

Sources: Statistical yearbooks of CEA and the CHA moanber coumtrics. 1978 Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany.

To enforce savings, energy consumption standards were reexaained in most CEA countries and price increases imposed for energy used by industry and/or do mestic consuscrs. Gasoline prices, especially, have cireacdy achieved a vory high level. Romania in fact is now willing to sell gasoline to forcigners fran socialist countries only against Western currencies.

The smaller countrics also intend to achieve savings by transferring more energy intensive industrics to the USSR. The CHA, countries adopted such a decision at this year's council mecting in Moscow.

Still, none of these measures suffice to absolve the CIA countries fron the reed to develop now energy sources. That is why the cast Suropoam countries plan for the intcnsive build-up of nuclear energy. Adnuittecly the use of solar and wind powor as well as of geothermal enorgy is also to be dcevelooed. The Sovicts, thouch, do not rate vory hichly the effects to be achioved there- by. Only Ranania has already publistec a long-range energy concept provicin; for now cnercsy sources (including solar cnorgy) to male a substantial contri- bution to cloctric gnergy production--about 10 percent in 1990, at least

20 percent in 2000,

Table 2--What is the Cost of 100 Liters of Premium Gasoline as a Percentage of Monthly Gross Income (August 1979)

Bulgaria 64 Poland ° 34 Hungary 33 Konania 33 CSSR 30 GR 17 Soviet Union 13 For comparison's saxe: Federal Republic of Germany +

Sources: 19/8 CZiA Statistical Yearbook; plan fulfillment reports by the CHA countries; iZUES DEUTSCHLAD, 6 July 1979, 21/22 Juiy 1979, 27 July 1979; FRAISFURTER RUNDSCHW, 30 July 1979.

Target: About 25 Percent Nuclear Power Contribution in 1990

Currently in: talled in the Duropean CEA member countries are nuclear power plants with a total capacity of 12,860 ii! [megawatt j, 10,000 ti of which are located in the Soviet Union. Nuclear powr plants therefore provide sauce

4 percent of electric energy output capacities in Cau--the share of muclear energy in the LSuropean Cocmmmity is twice that. Only the GoR, Bulgaria and the CSSR have joined the Sovict Union in operating nuclear power plants. However, all other CZiA member countries have begun to construct the neces- sary plants. At the boginning of the current five-year plan period it was intended that nuclear powr plants with a total capacity of more than

24,000 iW should begin operations in the total CZiA region by 1950; 6,000: wore to be contributed by the smaller C2. countries.

Actual data on the further expansion of nuclear power plants are available only for the sualler Citi coumtries inclucing the People's Republic of Cuba, In accordance with a general agreemont signed in 1977 these coyntrics intend to raise their nuclear power plant capacity to 37,000 by 1990." If this goal were achieved--sicnifying a tenfold irerease in the 1979 capacity--plus the growth in total electric energy production capacities of 5 percent (6 percent) per awum, the nuclear cnerzy contribution in those countries would rise to a@ total of 25 nercent (20 percent). The savings of conventional fue}s thus made possible are claimed to be on the order of 75 mili.on tors Su,’ that is some 8 percent of the primary onergy consumption of these countrics esti- mated for 1990, Io accurate data are yet available for Soviet expansion plans. Various reports indicate that nuclear power plant capacitics there are to be raised fraa 10,000 ii/ now to 100,000-110,000 it’ by 1990.° In that case nucloar crnergy would in the USSR also provide more than 20 percent of clectric energy production canacitics. Two nuclear power plants with a output of 4,000 i3/ each are to be constructed in the USSR with the financial participation of other CiiiA countries. The loans are to be repaid over a prolonged period by deliveries of clectric onergy. Agrecment has bee

achieved on the constriction of a plant in iimel’nitskiy (Ukraine), the costs of.which are to be met to 50 percent by Poland, Czcchosloval:ia and Hungary. Frou 1951 on this plant is to supply 12 billion kwh (kilowatt hours} annually to these countries.

Table 3--Poer Plant Capacities in CEA (Extensic: and Plaming te 1990 in 1J)

In Operation Planned

Late 1975 iiid-1979 1980 1990 USSR Ws 550 9,980 18 , 500 110,000 Gor 960 1,400 2,280 9,000 Bulgaria 880 880 1,760 4,760 CSSR 140 580 1,460 10,600 Hungary - - 440 3,300 Poland = = - 4,800 Ronaiia - . ~ 3,960 Cuda - - - 1,320 Total 7,480 B40 24,440 147,340 CoA excluding USSR 1,980 2,860 5,940 34,340

1) Soviet dats on power plant capacities are inconsistent. As a rule they relate to plats subordinated to the Ministry of Electricity (1975: 4,700 i3/). When adding the various data, however, we obtain a larger figure (5,550 :3/). Soe Leslic Dienes and Theodore Shabad: "The Soviet Enorcsy System," Toronto/ Loxdon/Sydney 1979, p 152.

Sources: TRYDU‘A LUDU, 27 June 1979; *ZUER WEG, 26 July 1979; RUDE PRAVO, 29 Narch 1979; MACIRICHTE FUER DE! AUSSEIADEL, 30 liovember 1976; DIW calcuiztions.

To replace the largest possible proportion of conventional energy suppliers, mucicar energy in the USSR is intended not to be used for clectric encrry production only. «4 beginning has already dbeon made with the construction of 9 muclear thermal plants for the production of lowgrade hoat to suvply citics. They aro Curronthy eoing uD in Gorki and Voronezh--that is directly in ro- sidential arcas. v The fast breeder reactor alreacy in oporation on the Caspian Sea since 1973 is used to produce fresh water.

To oxpedite the oxpansion of nucloar cnergy a factory was duilt in Volgodonsk (Soviet Union) for the mess production of thermal reactors and the necessary turbines. Lach or these is to have a capacity of at least 1,000 is?. This factory began to o:erate in late 1970; the first 1,000 ic/ reactor, 4s to be


Gelivered in 1951. The ultimate capacity is said to be 3,000 :3i,

Whilo the first nuclear power plants were almost omciusively made in the Sovict Union, @ Givision of labor anon; the CLA coumtrics has now bx gn agreed within the scone of the so-called lonc-range target prograns.+

ispecially the CSSR is to join the USSR in providing a substantial contribu- tion to the construction of nuclear power plants: It will manufacture pres- surized water reactors (440 and 1,000 MW), steam generators, wain circulation pipeiines and pumps. Nearly 30 percent of the investment expenditure car markcd for neavy machine construction in the period 1976-1980 was spent on the construction of the capacities needed for that purpose 14

Table 4--Zlectric inergy in CEiA in 1977

= i sitet | in auch a @ | se (2) \=/ carver -6r levechs ta wa ') 4 Se | ; Getec termraft arc. | Eomonrer = i or = 1970/60 1978/70 1976 1977 | tm 1009 wen ‘3 ) s.igerien ? 229 12 33,0 15,2 4.3 ss 8.7 3.7%

9) ssa $007 ' 69,1 7,2 3.9 49 6 4.60 (30) cca 1) 82 $ 92.5 $.5 “6 5,1 34 $52 (11) Pores 21 749 8 109.4 6.1 87 P| $.2 3,15 ic) mn 13 632 ry 9,7 1S.6 4 10.9 $.1 ze |

| $196 F 27 8,3 ‘6 6.1 ne (14) am is) | 2 319.4 8,2 ‘4 6.9 as) ue | (15) senjetunton | 237 805 > jn 1386 9.7 ‘7 0 en | (16) mae ww | 316 60: | 2 1 $30.0 9.3 6? 1,0 9 H ow (17 ~Saa omene gegetuder Gem Yorjanr on wh, 1970/6) Dew. 1975/70 jerresdurchschartt! tcn. (16 } Quelien Stetistiscre Jehrdwcher Cer PGu-Lénder und Ges BGu, werschiecene Jamrgenge, Berechmungen Ges Olu.

icy: 1. Capacity 2. Doacstic consumption 3. Total liv 4. Percentaze of nuclear power 5. Dillion icjh 6. Percentage growth 7. Per resident in 1,000 iiwwh & Bulgaria 9. Czechoslovakia 10, GOR ll. Polanc 12. Romania 13. tiungary

14, CHA (6) 15. Soviet Union 16. CEA (7) 17. Footnote: 1) Percentage change compared to the previous year; 1970/ 1960 or 1975/1970 armmual average. 1&. Sources: Statistical yearbooks of the CEiA countries and CZiA it- self, various years; DIW calculations.

Arrears in the Expansion of Nuclear Imergy

It is doubtful, though, whether it will be possible actually to carry out these aibitious e:mpamsion programs. So far the expansion efforts have always been charactcrized by nonfuliillment of the plans. > The aDansion prograa for miclear energy enacted at the 24th CPSU Congress in 1971, for exazple, provided for the construction of 30,000 i3] of additional camacities in the USSR in the period from 1971 to 1930/1982. The current 1976-1980 Five-Year Plan set the camacity target for 1980 at only 19,999 i3/. In the meatize no more than 10,000 i3/ have become operational, and even the reduced 1980 target camot possibly be achieved,

Similar delays have occurred in the smaller C=A comtries, especially Romania, tiungary and Poland. These comtries will not start gnerations in their first nuclear power plants until well into the 1900's.*" Initially the total capacity in the sualler Ci-A countries was to be expanded to more than 7,000 i5°* by 19380; so far no more than 2,900 i3/ are available.

This delay is probably duc mainly to insufficient capacitics in machine con struction anc other sunvly industries,4° Purthernowe, so far the Soviet Union is still more or less the sole supplier of nucicar powr plats within CEMA.

Still, outstanding problems regarding control technology may also have con- tributed to the delays. Earlier Sovict safety ucasures with regard to reactors were mot geared to the provision of specific precautions against ail possible mishaos. For example: Only the fifth blocl: in the iovovoronezh nuclear powcr plant currently under constructicn (it is the prototype of a 1,000 !3/ pres- surized water reactor) has been equipoed with an emergency cooling facility and a conercte pressure tank, The smaller C2.A countries will adop these safety facilities only /7ith the construction of 1,000 ii! reactors.

The USSR is obviously interested in obtaining access to Wester technolosy by way of the importation of nuclear power plats or scicntific-technological cooperation acreciuents such as are in effect with France in the sector of the fast breecer reactor, This is also quite important for the potcntial e:sports of Sovict nuclear power plants. The nuclear power nant supplied to Finland, for cxamic, had to be cquinped with Western control devices. The prototyne facility thercby created is likely to have facilitated the suc- cessful conclusion oi delivery contracts with Libya and Turkey.


To be able to maintain their far reaching independence in matters of energy supplics within the bloc, the Cai cowmtries decided to spced up the con- struction of nuclear paxr plmts. according to the plans nuclear nower plants with a total capacity of 140,000-150,000 ii) (includinz 37,000 i537 in the sizaller Zuroncean C-24A countries and Cuba) are to be installed by 1990 and satisfy 20-25 »crcent of clectric energy needs, and as much as 33 por cent in the curopean part of the USSR.

Table 5--Nuclear Power Plants in Operation in CEMA (as of June 1979)

() £2) (3) (4) 5). Jerr " Lona, Ort Grentiapotent Sembenvocensttes ; ger Reottortyp / UGSSA tasgeseat §=(6) 9 9% 1, Goatest (7) . 5 4 1944 , ora 2. Troits: (Sinieten) (8) () 6s 100 1913/62 ao Bjelojarse g ~ . Groteseret-t (9) ° 109 1964 O«8 Bjelojarss -2 200 1967 ona 4. Sovowroness (10) 1 625 Bowsworone | 4- | ae (230) 1964 (1969) oe Rowoworones*- 7 1969 CnR Mounen rome. - ) a 1971 Colt Rowmo rune ih -4 rv) 1972 oak © Gtetoetrme OD . wa-S0 we 1965 Sh e0a-60 12 1969 Sw 6. Schewtschento (12) 180 2) 559 1973 sa 7. Sole (uresnst) (13) [*) Rola-! as 1973 Own Gole-2 as 1975 Oot 6. Biting (14) ry G1lidine-! 12 1973 ban 811 1Bin0-2 a $2 1975 cm 611 tBino-3 2 19% oer B11 1bine-4 12 1976 fr | 9 ingred Lestewres-t 1 000 1973 oka Leniagrad-2 1 ooo 1975 oan 10, Grtermerjes (15) on acs 19% own (he2 emor-Areen 1. Gursh 2 000 Kurse-! 1 000 1976 Can Gursa-2 1 000 1976 can 12. Tschernody 16 eH (16) whens 1 oo 1977 cen Tschernoty!-2 1 000 1978 baa Gon insgesent (17) 1 400 1, Mnetnsbders & 70 (86) 1966 (1969) ic] 2. Greifswald 1 320 i wors-) (18) an 1976 Owk Km hors-2 4a0 1975 oom a flords-) 1978 ry Qulgerion insgesest (19) eae 1. Kosloéuj eas Kos lodu)-! aad 1976 Owe Kos loduj-2 040 1975 Out C352 insgeseet (20) cry 1, Jest. Bonunice . A-1 140 1972 Ke ¥-1 “) 1978 owt 1)ORR © Oruckromrenresstor, OwR « Oructwasserresstor, Suh © Siedewesserresttor; GOR « gasgenuhi ter Reattor, SHR © schneiler natriumoreuniter Brutresstor. - 2)devon werden 200 M4 tur Subwessererzevqung genutrt lusemmengeste! it } mach a. in Fachzeiteceriften (kernenergre, etomertschalt, Lnergretechnit) sowre Neves Deutscnlene wor 6./9. Sover- ber 1975. (21) |

[Key on following page ]


1. Comtry/location 2. Total capacity

3. Reactor units in iV 4, Start of overations 5. Reactor tyne -

6. USSR-total

7. Obninsk

8, Troitsk (Siberia) 9




Beloyarsk Novovoronezh

. Ulyanovsi: (Dimi trovgrad)

« Shevchenko 13. Kola (laxrmmansk) 14, Bilibino 15. Oktyemberyem (HMetsamor-Armenia) 16, Chernobyl 17. GDR--total 18, Nuclear power plant 19, Bulgaria--total 20, Czechoslovalza--total 21. Footnotes: 1) GR = pressure pipe reactor; DWR - pressurized water reactor; SWR - boiling water reactor; GGR = gas cooled reactor; SNR = sodium cooled fast breeder reactor.-- 2) 200 Iii of this are used to produce fresh water.-- Compiled from data in technical pa pers (nuclear energy, atonic management, energy technology), also NEUES DEUTSCHLAND, 8/9 November 1975.

The use of fast breeder reactors is to compensate for the increasing shortage of uranium. Prototypes are already in operation (Shevchenxo) or under con- struction (Deloyars!:). Within the noxt few years it is intonded to develop an optimm reactor suitable for incustrial use. It could be operational on a broad basis in the 1990's. These reactors--according to the demands made on the clopers=--are to double their plutonium output within less than

6 years. In the 1990's nuclear thermal plants are to make a strong contri- bution to the supply of heat in the USSR and the other CA countries. Their operation could save about 200 million tons of oil.

However, despite the comprehensive construction plans it is doubtful whethor the Cil‘A countries will be able to achieve their goals. For one the realiza- tion of the nuclear energy prograa largely depends on the significant e:pan- sion of supply capacities for the nuclear power plants. For the other it is certainly not feasible to conclude fro the unilaterally favorable appraisal of nuclear power by oublic bodies in CHA that safety problems are deemed irrelevant. The mass media of the Zast European countrics always repgesent muclear energy as a1 cnvirormmentally harmless and safe cicrcy sourco. Lately, though, it has been admitted that the “use of nucloar energy on a large scale does imply tho possibility of certain complications. We can- not cz:cluce speculations, therefore, that events such as the Harrisburs nuclear powor plant mishap may also result in delays in the expansion of nuclear energy in CZ iA,


4. oe





See S. Pomasanov, A. Yalusin, “Development of COA Integration in the Encr~- gy Sector," VOPROSY EXONOMIZCI No 6/1976, and EXONOMICIIESKAYA GAZETA No 27/ 1979, p 5. .

The coummuique issued after the 33rd council meeting mentions "agreements on the expansion of the production of energy intensive chemical products in the USSR (ammonia, methanol and polyethylene) in exchange for small tonnage and less energy intensive products.” See NEUSS DEUTSCHLAID,

30 June/1 July 1979.

See Ilie Serbamescu, “Romania's Energy Strategy," LUA No 31/1979, p 30. See PRAVDA, 29 March 1979 and DIE WIRTSCHAFT No 7, 13 July 1978. See DDR-AUSSE]AWIRTSCHAFT No 48, 29 November 1978.

According to reports by the Soviet Minister of Energy and electrification the total C&A nuclear powcr plant capacity is to amount to about 150,900 ii by 1990. See NACIRICHTEN FUR Do AUSSEXHANDEL, 3 July 1979. According to another source nuclear power plants in the Zuropean USSR are to procuce roughly one third of all clectric energy by 1990. This report is consistent with the 110,000 13) goal if we assume a 6 percent amnual growth for total electric energy production capacities and a regional distribution of 2:1 between European and non-Luropean capacities in the USS? by 1990. See Anatoliy Alcl:sandrov: "Scientific-Technological Progress and Nuclear =ner- gy," Ei DES FRIEDENS UD DES SOZIALISI@S, Prayue 1979, ilo 6, p 749.

Total estimated costs amount to 1.5 billion transferable rubles. Poland will pay 0.4 billion, the CSSR 0.24 billion and Hungary 0.11 billion trans- ferable rubles. See RUDE PRAVO, 30 March 1979,

See NEVES DEUTSCHLAND, 30 June/1 July 1979.

From 1990 such nuclear heating plants may be built clso in Poland and Czechoslovaliia, See A1¢rzej Szozda, "Develomment of uwlectric Unorgy in the People's Republic of Poland 1950-2000," EXERGIZETSCZL: No 5/1979, p 163, and RUDE PRAVO, 21 December 1978,

Concerning the safety problems involved it is noted that these power plants are sO saic that they do not represent any danger to the public. Sce Anatoliy Alel:sancrov, "Outlook for inergy," NEUES DEUTSCHLAND, 21/22 April 1979,

"In 1990 the construction of such thermal plants will maicxe sense for se- veral hundred localities in the USSR, because it will facilitate the saving of a large quantity of oil, corresponding to about a third of the country's current oil production." See Anatoliy Aleksandrov (note 6), p 750.


12. See NSUES DEUTSCHLAND, 17 August 1978 and 19 December 1978.

13. A corresponding azreement o1 th: specialization of the production of muclear power plant equipmciit has becn enacted by the 33rd C&iA Council Meeting (1979). Sce DIZ WIRTSGIAFT No 7/1979.

14, In addition the fo llowing specialization is envisaged: "The People's Republic of Bulgaria taves on the production of systems for biological protection as well as of fixtures, and the Hungarian People's Republic that oi mechanisms for reactor operation as well as of ec ilmment for specialized water purification. The People’s Republic of Polanc will produce condensers and generators." See DDR-AUSSENJINISCIAFT No 45,

29 November 1978, and AUSSEMMANDEL DER TSCGIISCHOSLOJAEI, No 5/1979, pp 14 f.

15. See also "Trends of Electricity Supply in Eastern Europe--Zxpansion of Nuclear Powr Plants in CLA," edited by Jochem Betikenhagen, DI- WOCHENDERICHT iio 51-52/1975.

16. Currently the following completion dates are planned: Poland 1983/1984, Hungary 1980/1931, Romania after 1985. Sec TiYOUNA LUDU, 235 Jume 1979; UL;GARISCILER AUSSE:HANDEL No 2/1976, p 17; NUER WEG, 13 July 1979.


18. See also PRAVDA, 11 May 1978 and IZVESTIYA, 10 July 1979, indicating dif- ficulties in the comletion of the fast breeder reactor at Deloyarsk.

19. See RUDE PRAVO, 21 December 1973.

20. See Anatoliy Alclisandrov (as note 6), p 746. Aleksandrov here clains: "The United States, for instance, chose the wrong a>proach in the dovel- opment of breeder reactors, by which plutonium doubles within 15-20 years. It is impossible to build up muicliear onergy to develop in the long term and supply itself with fuel, given such a rate of production of new fuel."

21. “If even the slightest dacer to the public nad been in evidence, not a single nuclear power plant would have been constructed either in our country nor in other socialist countries, howover desirable it nicht have been from the econoaic aspect." Andranik Petrosyants, chainian, State Comittee for the Utilization of Nuclear Energy,” SOWJSTUNIG HEUTE No 1-2/1977, pp 16 ff.

22, Anatoliy Aleksandrov (as note 10). At the same time these probleus are Gescribed as engineering problems auenable to reliable resolution.

11698 CSO: 2300



[Review of Hasan Banja's and Veniamin Toci's book “Arritje e Perspektiva te Industrise ne R P S te Shqiperise” ["Industrial Achievements and Prospects in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania”] by Iljaz Fishta, published by the 8 November printing house, Tirana, 1978]

[Text] The policy pursued by the People's Socialist Republic of Albania for the socialist industrialization of the country and the results achieved in the years of the people's government convincingly speak about the cor- rectness of the party's Marxist-Leninist line, the creative implementation of Marxist-Leninist teachings in the building of socialism and the selfless work of the working class and other working masses. As a result of this correct policy, Albania has been industrialized at rapid rates; it has been transformed from a backward agrarian country into an agrarian-industrial country and is continually progressing toward its conversion into an indus- trial-agricultural country.

The book “Arritje dhe Perspektiva te Industrise ne RPS te Shqiperise” (“Industrial Achievements and Prospects in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania"), written by Prof Hasan Banja and senior scientific collaborator Veniamin Toci, broadly deals with the process of the socialist industriali- zation of Albania from the beginning up to present days. It refers to the policy pursued by the Albanian Workers Party and the victories achieved by the Albanian people in this field. The Socialist industrialization in the People's Socialist Republic of Albania is treated in large proportions in this book for the first time in our economic literature.

The authors have done a serious work in hrndling the process of the social- ist industrialization in Albania from the positions of Marxist-Leninist theory of the party and of Comrade Enver hoxha's teachings. The book speaks about the correctness of the line pursued by the Albanian Workers Party in the building of socialism and, particularly, of the socialist industrialization of the country. The authors affirm that the Albanian Workers Party has acted in accordance with the general Marxist-Leninist principles of socialist industrialization, implementing them according to


the concrete conditions of Albania. They stress that the policy of social- ist industrialization has been executed in the bitter class struggle against our enemies inside and outside the country, especially, in the struggle against the modern revisionists of all hues--the Titoites, the Soviet social-imperialists and down to the Chinese revisionists. Stress- ing this true fact, the book is permeated by the great idea that the so- cialist industrialization of Albania has not been and is not a gift nor

a “charity” from other people; on the contrary, it has been, is and will be the work of the Albanian people, headed by the party led by Comrade Enver Hoxha.

The book contains 10 chapters in addition to an introduction and a fore- word.

In the introduction of the book, ("When We Open the Curtain of the Bitter Past"), the authors analyze the situation of industry before the libera- tion and present it in a correct manner. The authors prove with facts and conclusions that the landlord and bourgeois clique of Zog, which had come to power with the support of the domestic and foreign reactionaries in December 1924, executed an open-door policy, thus, putting in auction the wealth of the fatherland. The assault of foreign capital was particularly intensified immediately after Zogu's assumption of power when oil conces- sions were granted, especially, following the bank agreement and the SVEA [Societe ser lo Sviluppo Economico Albania; Society for Economic Develop- ment in Albania] loan, concluded on 15 March 1925. As a result of this agreement and other agreements concluded later between fascist Italy and Zog's government (the agreements of June 1931, March 1936 and so forth), Italian capital step by step intruded the various economic branches of Albania, especially industry.

The penetration of foreign monopolistic capital, especially Italian monopolistic capital, had serious consequences for the Albanian economy and industry. Foreign capital gave the Albanian economy a unilateral character in general and limited the sphere of action of the national capital. Above all, the penetration of Italian capital was placed com pletely at the service of fascist Italy's policy of occupation of Albania.

The authors stress that under the conditions of occupation, a real rush of Italian capital began in the Albanian economy, which was planned and savagely exploited.

In Chapter 1, the authors analyze the socialist nationalization of industry. They begin this chapter more correctly by pointing out that as a result of the victory of the People's Revolution, Albania was put onto the road to the building of the socialist society. Here it is indicated that one of the first